The freedom of designing urban districts for bikes

spiritofman9Having established why we should design bicycle cities, it is time I shared some thoughts on how we might design new urban districts to give them a bicycling focus. I’m thinking of former industrial areas and how we might redevelop these in ways that are true to the logic of bicycle motion. I have come to the conclusion after much thought, travel and drink (the latter, mostly tonight) that the perimeter block would have no rational basis if cities were no longer conceived with walkability at the forefront of our thinking. And with bike-sharing schemes and bike friendly buildings sweeping the globe, rollable cities may just eclipse walkable ones in our lifetimes.  Rollable cities would be healthier and more competitive than walkable ones, for precisely the reasons cycling is healthier than walking, and more competitive than walking in most kinds of races—except climbing stairs, I admit.

parametric masterplan

Whether you dress it in parametricism like Zaha Hadid, put it on a square grid with chamfered corners like the Eixample District in Barcelona, or imagine it being something innate to the human—like the nest to the ant—the perimeter block’s strength is it makes walking less boring. When I walk through a perimeter block city I need never know about all the courtyards behind, or the big building footprints below all those blocks. So much of the city’s land is erased, leaving my feeble pedestrian body to only need worry about the little bits left for the streets. And those are where all the commerce and movement is concentrated to make street-life more vibrant.

Barthelona, home of Gaudi and Margarita Pracatan

Barthelona, home of Gaudi and Margarita Pracatan

But if I’m on a bike, I find streets in perimeter block districts can be too vibrant. I’m not just referring to car horns and traffic. Even in Amsterdam’s canal district, where very few people even bother trying to drive, I find the streets are too busy. They’re busy with shop fronts, delivery vans, entries to houses, and bikes meeting bikes at acute corners. All these things that make it such a nice city for walking, stop me from cruising at a more natural bike speed, of say, 25kph.

amsterdam-2

Towers and vast open spaces don’t pose the same threats to cities of cyclists as they do to cities of people just walking. So I wonder if, when designing new districts, we shouldn’t be relaxing our efforts to compress street life by always reverting to perimeter block planning? If more people cycled, urban designers would not need to replicate the european traditional city. Look at it from the point of view of a mugger: you simply can’t find a lonely enough place in a city of cyclists to mug somebody in private. Some pesky cyclists will appear on the scene out of nowhere, like Boris Johnson.

amsterdam with towers

Wider streets lead to lower site coverage, and lower site coverage leads to greater height—assuming we want to maintain urban densities to curtail urban sprawl. You could take that to mean I’m in favour of towers in a park, that old idea of Le Corbusier’s. But I would rather express my view thus: the rise of cycling could lead to a relaxing of the strictures that make many urban designers think they can only ever work with perimeter blocks.

11117_l

Bjarke Ingels has complained about the masterplan for Orestad in Copenhagen being based

on a single typology – the perimeter block – which is the sort of archetypical European typology dominating most old European cities. Hence, all three [of his Orestad] projects try to deal with this idea of how can you wedge as much diversity and surprise and variation into a virgin city and how can you liberate yourself from the tyranny of the perimeter block.

The monoliths Ingels has designed in Orestad don’t offer much surprise though to people on foot. None appear suddenly, like the Pantheon when you walk into the Piazza della Rotonda. They are only surprising if you come up on them quickly, say in a car, or on the train, or on a bike.

6540203881_750_piazza-della-rotonda-and-pantheon

At bike speed, European cities are fun in small doses. The bigger ones would benefit from a few nights of blitzkrieg. London is a more interesting city than Rome on a bike, thanks to Hitler clearing land to make way for some typological variety—even if the pyramids and ziggurats did have to be built from shutter-board concrete.

103354043_doon_271431c

I doubt Nigel Coates could envision Amsterdam or Rome being made over with futuristic, pluralistic new buildings like the ones he sees London accommodating in the future.

1230421025_483da23f88_b

 

20

If I were designing a new urban district for a future when more people cycled than walked, I wouldn’t grid it up ready for perimeters blocks. I would design it more like a vast skate park, using undulations to enhance or reduce cyclists’ speed. I would sculpt anticipated desire lines and establish view corridors. There could be perimeter blocks on any sites that favoured their making, but I wouldn’t start with the aim of making as many such sites as I could.

Helicoid_by_dandelgrosso
colossusuk

 

It would bring me more joy if desire lines and vistas left sites behind for architects to explore new housing types: giant colossi, helicoids, and pits sunken into the ground.

newheden-ed02

 

 

 

The world is rapidly urbanising, at a time when building technology makes marvellous forms as easy to build as banal ones, and when an uptake in urban cycling means urban designers won’t find it so hard to put eyes on the street or keep people amused: they are not stuck doing perimeter blocks with cafes and awnings at street level.

Nigel Coates's Mixtacity Buildings

Nigel Coates’s Mixtacity Buildings

If they prioritise cycling, urban designers can use any urban morphological pattern they can imagine, and not risk a social disaster.

About Steven

I'm on a mission to put cycling on the agendas of architects, urban designers and fellow academics, who see the potential for bicycles to change cities and buildings. My PhD is in architectural history and my interdisciplinary research spans art theory, philosophy and cultural studies. I teach architectural history and theory and design studio at The University of Tasmania, Australia, and formerly worked as an architect designing large public housing projects in Singapore. My favourite bikes are a titanium racing bike I use for racing, a Velorbis retro commuter for riding to cafes and work, a single speed ultra light Brompton that I take with me when I travel on planes, a 29er hard tail mountain bike that I get lost on in remote places, an old track bike that scares me, a 1984 Colnago Super with all original campagnolo components that is plugged into a virtual realm that I train in, and a Dutch-made Bakfiets, that could easily replace half of the bikes I just mentioned.
This entry was posted in blog. Bookmark the permalink.

2 Responses to The freedom of designing urban districts for bikes

  1. matthew says:

    At best half the population can, or will cycle. It’s the best medium distance form of transport, but I don’t want to be forced to walk miles just because my partner has come along. Or my 70 year old mum.

    Also, when did they put up those blocks behind the National Theatre? I’m not sure the Coin Street Community Builders will be too happy with that.

Leave a Reply